What Is BPC-157?



BCP-157 is a 15 amino-acid-long peptide derived from a much longer molecule known as body protection compound (BPC). BPC was originally isolated from human gastric secretions and has been found to accelerate healing in number of different animal models and in a number of different tissues. It is currently being investigated as therapeutic for tendon injury.


Healing Properties of BPC-157


BPC-157 has several unique properties that have made it a source of intensive study. Most important among those effects is that BPC-157 accelerates healing. It isn’t entirely clear by what mechanism BPC-157 produces its restorative effect, but it is known to promote healing in skin, muscle, bone, ligament, and tendon. Animal studies suggest that the healing effects of BPC-157 may be mediated by fibroblasts. Fibroblasts are found outside of cells and make up a large portion of the collagen in connective tissues such as muscle, bone, and tendon. Fibroblasts are known to play a role in growth and healing and are stimulated to divide when injury occurs.


Recent research suggests that at least part of the mechanism of action of BPC-157 may result from an upregulation of growth hormone receptor expression in fibroblasts1 . By increasing growth hormone receptor density, BPC-157 can be thought of as increasing the potency of growth hormone, which has known healing and reparative effects.


Studies, primarily in rat models, indicate that BPC-157 may also encourage migration of fibroblasts by promoting expression of genes that regulate actin filament production2 . In other words, BPC-157 not only increases fibroblast response to growth hormone, but stimulates fibroblast ability to move to sites of injury and initiate repair. It may also play a role in fibroblast survival, allowing them to live longer and thus perform their healing functions for longer periods of time following injury.


Oral Administration


One of the unique benefits of BPC-157 is that it is stable in gastric acid. That means that the peptide can be consumed orally and does not need to be injected. In fact, BPC-157 is often simply mixed in water during animal studies.




BPC-157 promotes healing in connective tissues throughout the body. Though most research has been confined to bone, tendon, and ligament injuries, fibroblasts are also found in vascular tissue, skin, the GI tract, and the lungs. In the future, BPC-157 may prove to be a useful healing accelerator for a variety of injuries from tendon tears to vascular ruptures. To date, no adverse effects have been described with BPC-157.




  1. Chang, C.-H., Tsai, W.-C., Hsu, Y.-H. & Pang, J.-H. S. Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 enhances the growth hormone receptor expression in tendon fibroblasts. Mol. Basel Switz.19, 19066-19077 (2014).


  1. Chang, C.-H., Tsai, W.-C., Lin, M.-S., Hsu, Y.-H. & Pang, J.-H. S. The promoting effect of pentadecapeptide BPC 157 on tendon healing involves tendon outgrowth, cell survival, and cell migration. J. Appl. Physiol. Bethesda Md 1985110, 774-780 (2011).

The Varied Effects of IGF-1 LR3



IGF-1 LR3 is a dynamic peptide with a range of effects that impact everything from muscle growth to the metabolism of blood sugar. It is a derivative of IGF-1, a naturally occurring protein that is at its highest levels during the rapid growth associated with puberty. A plethora of research on IGF-1 LR3 has revealed how it acts like IGF-1 in a number of ways.


IGF-1 Biochemistry


It is important to note that IGF-1 levels are primarily controlled by the action of growth hormone on the liver. Increases in levels of growth hormone (GH) lead to increases in IGF-1, which in turn has a negative feedback on GH release from the pituitary gland. In fact, IGF-1 levels are one of the primary regulators of GH, which in turn is a primary regulator of IGF-1 levels. The two molecules form a feedback loop that ensures adequate levels of both hormones for proper growth.


IGF-1 is similar in many respects, including its structure, to the hormone insulin. It is an anabolic hormone, which means its primary effects are growth and differentiation of a variety of cells throughout the body. IGF-1 effects are mediated primarily through binding to the IGF-1 receptor, but it can also bind to the insulin receptor.


IGF-1 LR3 and Insulin


Like IGF-1, IGF-1 LR3 can bind to the insulin receptor. In so doing, IGF-1 LR3 promotes the uptake of glucose (blood sugar) by a variety of different cells including neurons, fat cells, and muscle cells. This allows cells to increase their energy metabolism, a requisite first step to growth and development.


It is important to note that IGF-1 binding to the insulin receptor is of a lower affinity than insulin binding. This means that IGF-1 LR3 produces less dramatic effects than insulin when it comes to blood glucose levels. To some extent, this means that IGF-1 LR3 is less likely to cause hypoglycemia (low blood sugar), though such an effect is possible at higher doses.


IGF-1 LR3 and RNA


IGF-1 is a potent transcription activator, which means to turns genes on. IGF-1 LR3 does the same thing, promoting the production of RNA, which in turn promotes the production of proteins and controls the cell cycle. The effects of increasing RNA transcription are two-fold.


The first effect from increased levels of RNA is increased protein synthesis. Proteins like actin and myosin are integral components of sarcomeres, the fundamental units responsible for muscle contraction. Injection of IGF-1 LR3 is thus associated with cell hypertrophy (growth in size) in muscle tissue as a result of increased production of actin and myosin secondary to the stimulation of RNA synthesis1 . RNA production is not just limited to muscle cells, however. IGF-1 LR3 also causes hypertrophy in cartilage, bone, liver, kidney, nerve, skin, and blood cells.


The second effect of increased RNA synthesis is a change in cell proliferation, which can be regulated up or down. The primary effect of any IGF-1-like molecule is to increase cell proliferation, a process known as hyperplasia. So, cells not only grow in size, but also increase in number secondary to IGF-1 LR3 administration. The hyperplastic effect is most obvious in skeletal muscle and hematopoietic (blood) cells.


IGF-1 LR3 and Longevity


Because IGF-1 promotes cell proliferation, it increases rates of tissue repair, particularly muscle, cardiovascular, and neurologic tissue2 . Obviously, tissue degradation is associated with aging. Research in cows and pigs suggests that IGF-1 and its analogues may promote tissue repair and fight off the effects of aging. It is an interesting fact that, as any organism ages, the organs that produce IGF-1 (primarily the liver) also age. So, the very molecule that can fight off the effects of aging is itself subject to the relentless passage of time. By administering exogenous IGF-1 LR3, it is possible to maintain tissue repair levels that are consistent with those of much younger organisms3 .


It isn’t clear just how profound the effects of IGF-1 and its analogues will be in regards to aging. To date, the net effect of IGF-1 LR3 administration on aging has been positive in terms of tissue growth and repair, but mice deprived of IGF-1 tend to live longer, on average, suggesting that tissue repair is not the only thing that is important in promoting longevity. Oddly, exercise, which is associated with better health and longevity, is known to stimulate synthesis and release of IGF-14 . Obviously, the relationship between IGF-1 and longevity is complicated, which is why research is still ongoing5 .




  1. Velloso, C. P. Regulation of muscle mass by growth hormone and IGF-I. Br. J. Pharmacol.154, 557-568 (2008).


  1. Llorens-Martín, M., Torres-Alemán, I. & Trejo, J. L. Mechanisms mediating brain plasticity: IGF1 and adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Neurosci. Rev. J. Bringing Neurobiol. Neurol. Psychiatry15, 134-148 (2009).


  1. Corpas, E., Harman, S. M. & Blackman, M. R. Human growth hormone and human aging. Endocr. Rev.14, 20-39 (1993).


  1. Gatti, R., De Palo, E. F., Antonelli, G. & Spinella, P. IGF-I/IGFBP system: metabolism outline and physical exercise. J. Endocrinol. Invest.35, 699-707 (2012).


  1. Sonntag, W. E., Csiszar, A., deCabo, R., Ferrucci, L. & Ungvari, Z. Diverse roles of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 in mammalian aging: progress and controversies. J. Gerontol. A. Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.67, 587-598 (2012).

How Does Modified GRF (1-29) Work?



Modified GRF (1-29), called mod GRF for short, is an analogue of human growth-hormone releasing hormone (GHRH). GHRH, which is produced by the hypothalamus, causes the release of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary. Growth hormone (GH), in turn, affects various end-organ receptors to stimulate muscle growth, bone growth, calcium retention, and a host of other things.


The GHRH-GH Axis and Modified GRF (1-29)


The GHRH-GH axis is the technical term applied to the system of hormones and organs that regulate and respond to growth hormone. The entire process starts in the hypothalamus, a small region of the brain that sits just above the brain stem. The hypothalamus produces a number of hormones, one of which is referred to as growth-hormone releasing hormone (GHRH). GHRH acts on the pituitary gland, which sits just below the hypothalamus, causing it to release growth hormone. Growth hormone then goes on to affect liver, bone, fat, muscle, and thyroid tissues. Is modified GRF (1-29) safe?


GHRH and GH hormone levels are regulated by feedback from the various organs that GH affects. For instance, a rise in levels of Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) will suppress GH and GHRH production in the pituitary and hypothalamus, respectively.


The regulation of GHRH and GH is complex and subject to a number of positive and negative feedback mechanisms. These mechanisms serve to regulate GH levels and to ensure proper development of body tissues. Exogenous (outside of the body) analogues of GHRH have all of the same effects of GHRH, but are not subject to the feedback mechanisms that normally regulate GHRH.


Mod GRF is similar to GHRH, but is only 29 amino acids long rather than 44 amino acids long. Mod GRF has the same effects as GHRH, even though it is smaller. The molecule itself has been heavily manipulated to increase its half-life, prevent degradation, and increase potency. Mod GRF (1-29) comes in DAC and no-DAC forms. DAC, or Drug Affinity Complex, is a protein that is added to the end of a molecule to prevent it from degrading in the bloodstream of test animals. Modified GRF (1-29) with DAC is known as CJC-1295 – DAC while standard modified GRF (1-29) is known as CJC 1295 – no DAC.


Receptor Binding


The primary function of GHRH and any analogue of it is to bind to GHRH receptors (GHRHRs) on the anterior pituitary gland. Binding, in turn, causes the release of GH. Analogues of GHRH can be manipulated by scientists to alter their effects and their durations of action. Mod GRF (1-29) is just one of several analogues that have been created and modified in order to produce varying effects on GH release.


Effects of Growth Hormone


GH has a number of biological actions. In fact, GH has so many functions in mammalian physiology that they haven’t all been uncovered yet. A few known effects include

  • enhancing muscle cell growth via sarcomere (muscle fiber) hypertrophy,
  • enhancing bone growth due to calcium retention,
  • increasing triglyceride (fat) metabolism,
  • increasing protein synthesis in almost all cells,
  • increasing gluconeogenesis (sugar production) in the liver, and
  • improving myocardial (heart muscle cell) function.


The above effects of growth hormone lead to decreased LDL (bad) cholesterol, increased muscle and bone mass, increased aerobic capacity, increased fat burning, and even improvements in cognitive function. These effects have all been seen in both animal and human subjects who had GH replacement after being diagnosed with growth hormone deficiency.

Modified GRF 1-29

Modified GRF 1-29, originally known as tetrasubstituted GRF 1-29 is an injectable peptide that is used to increase the production of growth hormones. Mod GRF 1-29 basically describes a group of 29 amino acids that is derived from GHRH (growth hormone releasing hormone).

GHRH which can also be referred to as GRF or GHRF is a 44 amino acid peptide hormone that is produced by the arcuate nucleus in the hypothalamus. GHRH is known to assist in the stimulation of growth hormones (GH)

The Mod GRF 1-29 increases production of these growth hormones in the body by binding itself to receptor cells in the anterior pituitary and stimulating the secretion of growth hormones.

Basics of Mod GRF 1-29Where to get Mod GRF 1-29

Even though Modified GRF 1-29 has been created to copy the effects and structure of GHRH, it is slightly altered to provide stability when injected into the blood stream.

The natural version of GHRH has a very low half-life that is typically less than 10 minutes. This can sometimes drop to even five minutes in some instances. This short lifespan makes it difficult to produce products that mimic functions of GHRH or even for researches to properly interact with chemicals in the natural growth hormone.

In order to come up with an effective solution to deal with the short life span of the GHRH, Mod GRF 1-29 structure was altered so as to increase its lifespan and enable researchers interact with it. This was done by replacing the structure of the amino acids at its 2,8,15 and 27th place so as to create better yields and an expanded half-life of up to 30 minutes.

Change in position 2 structure is meant to stop DPP-IV cleavage, change in position 8 to reduce rearrangement of amide hydrolysis to aspartic acid; change in position 15 enhances bioactivity while position 27 prevents oxidation of methionine.

Mod GRF is very effective in aiding fat loss, faster healing from an injury and cosmetic improvement. Even though Mod GRF 1-29 is principally used to increase GH levels, it also results in an increased IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factor) which facilitates weight loss. This insulin-like growth factor 1 also helps in muscle gain in some instances. For effective weight loss and muscle gain, it is recommended to useMod GRF 1-29 in combination with other anabolic steroids.

Mod GRF 1-29 is also known to aid in helping people with sleeping difficulty easily fall asleep. Many users have however cited that it results in more vivid dreams. It is also advisable to seek professional advise before using this peptide in combination with other steroids.